[LMH]Raven Microcode Questions
Mon Nov 24 18:13:01 2003
On Mon, Nov 17, 2003 at 10:12:38PM -0600, Steve Krueger wrote:
> I'm sorry I've been slow to answer.
That's okay. I'm on vacation right now anyway, and email access is a
little bit sporadic (I'm not paying $10/day for internet). This email
will probably not be sent until after I return home on Monday evening.
At least I'll have the time to work out a few answers myself...
> I can indeed answer almost any question on the Explorer I microcode engine.
That's good to hear. I've had to make a couple wild guesses so far, and
I'd like to get them straightened out.
> You are right. If the condition is true, the jump action specified by
> R, P and N bits is performed. If false, the jump action of the
> abbreviated jump field is performed. Only 000 (And-Nop), 110 (And-Popj)
> and 111 (And-Popj-Xct-Next) are allowed in the abbreviated jump field of
> a jump or dispatch microinstruction.
Basically what I had figured.
> >My first question is how do the condition and abbrev-jump fields
> >interact on alu and byte instructions? How does the condition field
> >operate on these instructions without the abbrev-jump field?
> The abbreviated jump field is conditioned on the condition selected by
> the condition field. Like:
> (And-Call-Illop If-Not-Tag-Equal (M-T) M+1 M-T A-R)
> This does unary arithmetic on M-T while checking that the tag of M-T is
> equal to the tag of A-R).
Okay, now here I have an additional question. From my disassembly of the
E1 proms supplied by Al Kossow:
L-197 ((M-0) M+M LOAD-Q M-ONES)
L-198 ((M-0) M+1 IF-NOT-EQUAL Q-R M-ZEROS AND-SKIP)
Now, M-ONES is M-3, and contains the 32-bit 2s-complement value -1. L-197
sets M-0 and Q-R to the value -2, or #xfffffffe. L-198, almost any way I
read it, compares either Q-R or Q-R + 1 (either -2 or -1) to 0, and skips.
The problem is that it skips a DPB to IMOD-LOW, which runs as follows:
L-199 ((M-0 IMOD-LOW) DPB (BYTE-FIELD 10 19) M-1 M-ZEROS)
L-200 ((M-0) SETM Q-R)
L-201 ((M-0 IMOD-HIGH) DPB (BYTE-FIELD 10 0) M-1 M-ZEROS)
L-202 (CALL SELFTEST-ERROR IF-NOT-EQUAL Q-R M-0)
Then, because A-1023 doesn't equal #xfffffffe, it ends up failing the CPU
selftest. Or, if A-Memory is all initialized to #xfffffffe, fails when it
gets down to A-63, which was previously initialized to 63 during the M-
Memory tests. Or maybe when it executes this code again with Q-R equal to
#xfffffffd (it's a walking-0 memory test for A-Memory and the PDL-Buffer).
The best I've been able to come up with so far as a way out of this is to
use the ALU output or Output Bus contents as the M-Source for the
condition system and to either subtract 1 from or xor with -1 the A-Source
when the ALU Carry Input is set.
If you can confirm my reasoning or provide an alternate explanation, it
would be much appreciated.
> >My second question is what is the encoding for where to store the data
> >when using the jump instruction to read I-Memory?
> Ah, that one I'll have to look up.
> The write sequence must be:
> (Call-Xct-Next write-target)
> (Popj-Inhibit-Xct-Next A-Reg1 M-Reg2 WRITE-IRAM)
> This writes into the I-Ram at write-target with I<55:32> coming from
> A-Reg1<23:00> and I<31:00> coming from M-Reg2<31:00>.
I actually had writes figured out, I was more concerned about the read
sequence, which is:
(popj ??? READ-IRAM)
Or, from a disassembly:
L-304 ((M-0 IMOD-LOW) DPB (BYTE-FIELD 14 18) M-1 M-ZEROS)
L-306 (READ-I-MEM ...???)
I had assumed that this form uses the same destination encodings as the
ALU and BYTE instructions, making L-306 (READ-I-MEM (M-6)), and that the
other word was stored in Q-R, but that assumption broke down once the
walking-1 test of I-Memory passed the 23rd bit. Then I realized that it
was executing two read operations per I-Memory location, the second for
the high half. Q-R obviously isn't touched, and I<31:31> of the second
READ-I-MEM instruction was set, which normally indicates an A-target,
but the address was in M-Memory space.
My current best guess is that the A/M write-through is disabled during
I-Memory reads, and that the A/M target switch also selects the high or
low part of the I-Memory word. This opens the question of functional
destinations, however, although all functional destinations thus far
would be nops.
> >I'm sure there are more questions waiting in the wings. Oh well.
And here are the first few:
What does the ALU output bus control Output-Selector-Mirror do?
Does ALU output bus control Output-Selector-RightShift-1 shift in a
copy of the sign bit, a 0, the low bit of Q-R, or the carry out from
Is ALU output bus control Output-Selector-R-Bus a read from Q-R or
Does writing to Test-Synch do anything useful like clear the low bit of
MD to 0?
What exactly does the ALU operation EQV do?
How does the rotation direction flag affect the mask calculation for
BYTE instructions when mask-rotate is enabled? Is the simplest thing
to do here to treat it as the normal case, but take the position as
(32 - position) mod 32?
What happens when a JUMP instruction has both the call and return bits
set? ravfmt.lisp says nop and skip, but ravsym.lisp says jump2-xct-next
and jump2. Based on the PROM code, I have to assume that ravsym is
correct. Is this right? Does anything get written to the microstack in
Between the PROM disassemblies and SSDN2 section 2 (the light code
table in particular), I find myself believing that the trap addresses
given in ravfmt.lisp are twice the value they purport to be. That is,
that the power failure trap address is 2, not 4, and so on down the
line. Is this, in fact, the case?
> >If someone could shed some light on these subjects it would be much
> Again, sorry it took me so long.
Not a problem.